Generally, the person(s) who own the dog is responsible for the animal who bit you. This may include such facts as the dog not being leashed or in a fenced in yard.
Not always. Some policies specifically exclude certain breed of dogs. Also, an insurance company may deny coverage if they were not notified the homeowner had a dog.
First is to seek treatment at a local medical facility right away. Notifying the local animal control agency should be your next step. This agency will investigate the situation and make sure the animal is up to date for a rabies shot.
These are very difficult cases to receive any type of settlement compensation. The defense is that you should have observed the open and obvious situation and take appropriate steps to avoid it. The facts of your case are important. There may be facts that support your claim and could gain your ability to recover for your injuries.
These are also very difficult cases to recover. In Illinois, Trampolines are considered an obvious danger. The courts have ruled that by playing on a trampoline the person has assumed the risk and therefore, recovery is not allowed. This same rule can apply to various playground equipment as well. There may be some facts that will allow a recovery, but a review by an Experienced Attorney would be necessary.